The cyclone was first noted on January 5, 1988 as a weak tropical depression to the northeast of Tuvalu, in conjunction with the future Typhoon Roy in the Northern Hemisphere. [36] By the end of November, there were 38 helicopters operating in the disaster area, ten of which were British and ten American. In total, approximately 65% of the fishing capacity of the coastal region was destroyed by the storm, in a region where about 80% of the protein consumed comes from fish. [5] As the storm made landfall, it caused a 10-metre (33 ft) high storm surge at the Ganges Delta. Tropical Cyclone Trina (Fiji Meteorological Service designation: 01F, Joint Typhoon Warning Center designation: 06P) was a weak but destructive tropical cyclone in late 2001 which caused some of the worst flooding in the South Pacific island of Mangaia, Cook Islands, in nearly 50 years.Forming out of an upper-level low pressure system on November 29 near the island of … PTSD explained later). Cyclone Tino Aftermath: Mostly Roads Affected, Says National Disaster Management Office. [39][44] Pope Paul VI announced that he would visit Dhaka during a visit to the Far East and urged people to pray for the victims of the disaster. [55][56], Footage of the incident appeared in the film Days of Fury (1979), directed by Fred Warshofsky and hosted by Vincent Price. While the cyclone passed north of the island, a strong easterly flow over the North Island contained the interaction between moist air from Bola and drier air from the ridge to its southeast. by shalveen chand. [4] Which turned south and began to affect the North Island of New Zealand on March 6. The cyclone formed over the central Bay of Bengal on November 8, and traveled northward, intensifying as it did so. A comparable number of people died as a result of the 1976 Tangshan earthquake and the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake , but because of uncertainty in the number of deaths in all three disasters, it may never be known which one was the deadliest. [30] On November 19, students held a march in Dhaka in protest of the speed of the government response,[34] and Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani addressed a rally of 50,000 people on November 24, when he accused the president of inefficiency and demanded his resignation. [29] The Pakistani government said it was unable to transfer military helicopters from West Pakistan as the Indian government did not grant clearance to cross the intervening Indian territory, a charge the Indian government denied. [6], Two medical relief surveys were carried out by the Pakistan-SEATO Cholera Research Laboratory: the first in November and the second in February and March. A ship anchored in the port in the same area recorded a peak gust of 222 km/h (138 mph) about 45 minutes later. Over 350,000 people fled their homes to shelters and other brick structures, while others sought high ground. As atmospheric conditions became more conducive to intensification, the disturbance gradually consolidated as it drifted toward the west-southwest. We have a large army, but it is left to the, "NOAA Researcher's Warning Helps Save Lives in Bangladesh", National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "Western North Pacific Tropical Storms 1969", "The deadliest tropical cyclone in history? [36], The government of Singapore sent a military medical mission to East Pakistan which arrived at Chittagong on December 1, 1971. The developing cyclone was first detected on April 3, while situated well to the northeast of Vanuatu. [16] Teams from the Pakistani army reached many of the stricken areas in the two days following the landfall of the cyclone. [14] In the port at Chittagong, the storm tide peaked at about 4 m (13 ft) above the average sea level, 1.2 m (3.9 ft) of which was the storm surge. [70] On 15 March gale-force winds began affecting northern parts of the North Island and continued into the following day, [71] with gusts peaking at 148 km/h (92 mph) in Kaeo and 144 km/h (89 mph) in Hicks Bay . Mental Health Care for Ethnic Minority Individuals and Communities in the Aftermath of Disasters and Mass Violence - Volume 10 Issue 2 Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. In Vanuatu, Bola dropped heavy rainfall, which destroyed two bridges and caused $5 million in damage (1988 USD, $9 million 2008 USD). In the aftermath of the catastrophe, community-minded Gisborne man Ian Dunsmore, co-owner of sport and music store, Guy and Dunsmore, wanted to help restore morale in the region. [24], The results showed that the highest survival rate was for adult males aged 15–49, while more than half the deaths were children under ten, who only formed a third of the pre-cyclone population. Over the next few days, the system gradually developed while moving southwestward. I have often wondered why I am so interested in the … Also that year, Cyclone Bola struck, ravaging farms on the North Island's East Coast. [27] Pakistani President Yahya Khan returned from a state visit to China and overflew the disaster area on November 16. [2] A study was taken five years after the storm, consisting of a group of 112 people who were evacuated or received monetary assistance in response to the cyclone; the study showed 12% of the respondents as experiencing Posttraumatic stress disorder, of which they reported a general lack of assistance and public support. [6] The cyclone is the largest to be recorded in 93 years of rainfall records. [36], The Awami League, headed by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, swept to a landslide victory in the national elections in December 1970, in part because of dissatisfaction over failure of the relief efforts by the national government. In Te Karaka in Gisborne, a flooded river forced 500 residents to evacuate. Cyclone Bola The effect of personal memory on environmental consciousness. [39], The United Nations donated $2.1 million in food and cash, while UNICEF began a drive to raise a further million. Cyclone Olaf was the sixth cyclone to form in the Southwest Pacific Ocean during the 2004-05 South Pacific cyclone season. The 100,000 migrant workers who were collecting the rice harvest, families who were completely wiped out by the storm and those who had migrated out of the region in the three months were not included, and by excluding these groups, the risk of hearsay and exaggeration was reduced. A total of 1,765 farmers were affected by the flooding, accounting for about 3,600 hectares (8,900 acres) of damaged crop fields and about $90 million in crop damage (1988 NZD, $82 million 1988 USD $152 million 2011 USD). Although there were not direct measurements of the winds of pressure in the storm, satellite imagery suggests that the storm intensified rapidly, becoming a well-defined cyclone with sustained winds between 137-145 km/h (85-90 mph) by 11 November. [16], Over 3.6 million people were directly affected by the cyclone, and the total damage from the storm was estimated at $86.4 million (1970 USD, $450 Million 2006 USD). A powerful Category 5 cyclone, Olaf stuck American Samoa causing heavy damage although exact estimates are unknown. The Bhola cyclone is the deadliest tropical cyclone on record and also one of the deadliest natural disasters in modern history. … Prime Minister Bainimarama Meets United Arab Emirates Fijians In … The worst effects were felt in Tazumuddin, where the mortality was 46.3%, corresponding to approximately 77,000 deaths in Thana alone. [72] At first the Cyclone response was "business as usual", with the District Council and central government talking to Pākeha dominated groups such as federated famers and large agricultural businesses. The cyclone was first noted on January 5, 1988 as a weak tropical depression to the northeast of Tuvalu, in conjunction with the future Typhoon Roy in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Gisborne region, the flow resulted in the heaviest rainfall totals, when the moisture ascended over the region's western mountainous areas and condensed into precipitation. The exact death toll will never be known, but it is estimated to be 300,000 to 500,000 people in total. Severe Tropical Cyclone Anne was one of the most intense tropical cyclones within the South Pacific basin during the 1980s. [6] The storm became nearly stationary that evening near 14.5° N, 87° E, but began to accelerate toward the north on November 10. He's heard of the deaths that occurred during the aftermath of Cyclone Bola when untrained men worked in the chaotic windthrow down near Whakatane. But out of the devastation flowered a beautiful thing. Exactly how many left their farms because of Rogernomics and/or drought is not known. [39], The World Bank estimated that it would cost $185 million to reconstruct the area devastated by the storm. Floods madly conducted by Cyclone Bola damaged houses, destroyed crops, silted up farmland and scoured hillsides. When Cyclone Bola churned through the Southwest Pacific with 100 km/hr winds, Vanuatu, New Zealand and Fiji were within the path of the storm’s circumference. [44] The British task force arrived off the Pakistan coast on November 24, and the 650 troops aboard the ships immediately began using landing craft to deliver supplies to offshore islands. The next day cyclone Gene started to temporarily weaken again by becoming a category two cyclone with winds speeds of 95 km/h (60 mph 10 min). A powerful Category 5 cyclone, Olaf stuck American Samoa causing heavy damage although exact estimates are unknown. ", "Cyclone shelters save lives, but more needed", "Watch Days of Fury (1979) on the Internet Archive", http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/world/news/15112007news.shtml, "Bangladesh cyclone death toll hits 15,000", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1970_Bhola_cyclone&oldid=993156705, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 02:20. In January, the coldest period of the year in East Pakistan, the National Relief and Rehabilitation Committee, headed by the editor of Ittefaq, said thousands of survivors from the storm were "passing their days under [the] open sky". OPINION: In June 2018, many Kiwis looked aghast at images of a house marooned in a sea of logs in Tolaga ... * Forestry meets farmland - 30 years on from Cyclone Bola. The system traveled north and intensified, driving into the low-lying delta area overnight on 12 November, during an … [8] A large part of the population was reportedly taken by surprise by the storm. The depression intensified as it moved slowly northward, and the India Meteorological Department upgraded it to a cyclonic storm the next day. [41], US President Richard Nixon allocated a $10 million ($66 million in 2019) grant to provide food and other essential relief to the survivors of the storm, and the U.S. ambassador to Pakistan pledged that he would "assist the East Pakistan government in every way feasible. Gisborne residents are being warned to stock enough food and water to last three days as authorities brace for the aftermath of Cyclone Pam. This conflict widened into the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 in December and concluded with the creation of Bangladesh. Few people, however, lost their lives as a direct result of the storm. [5] Three months after the storm, 75% of the population was receiving food from relief workers, and over 150,000 relied upon aid for half of their food. Of the 77,000 onshore fishermen, 46,000 were killed by the cyclone, and 40% of the survivors were affected severely. The Americans had provided about 50 small boats and the British 70 for supply distribution. However, the government did not carry out all of the recommendations Dunn had listed.[8]. [26], As the conflict between East and West Pakistan developed in March, the Dhaka offices of the two government organisations directly involved in relief efforts were closed for at least two weeks, first by a general strike and then by a ban on government work in East Pakistan by the Awami League. However this time was different. The rain caused damage to housing and crops in both Indian states, with the worst damage occurring in the southernmost districts. [22] Cyclone-related morbidity was generally restricted to minor injuries, but a phenomenon dubbed "cyclone syndrome" was observed. Severe Tropical Cyclone Anne was one of the most intense tropical cyclones within the South Pacific basin during the 1980s. A flight over the area showed the devastation was complete throughout the southern half of Bhola Island, and the rice crops of Bhola Island, Hatia Island and the nearby mainland coastline were destroyed. [15] Several seagoing vessels in the ports of Chittagong and Mongla were reported damaged, and the airports at Chittagong and Cox's Bazar were under 1 m (3.3 ft) of water for several hours. M.J. Nigel Long's 50 research works with 888 citations and 3,625 reads, including: Peritraumatic distress: Its relationship to posttraumatic stress and complicated grief symptoms in sudden death survivors ", 10.1175/1520-0477(1971)052<0438:TDTCIH>2.0.CO;2, "Annual Summary â€” Storms & Depressions", "Worst Cyclone of the Century Batters East Pakistan", "Many Pakistan flood victims died needlessly", "The Day The Cyclone Came To East Pakistan", "The tropical cyclone problem in East Pakistan", "Cyclonic Storm Surge Modelling for Design of Coastal Polder", "East Bengal cyclone of November, 1970: Epidemiological approach to disaster assessment", "Pakistan relief program flounder as toll mounts", "Pakistan Cyclone Relief Still Jumbled and Inadequate", "A Critical Juncture Analysis, 1964–2003", "Cyclone Protection and Coastal Area Rehabilitation Project", "The Beatles Bible – Live: The Concert For Bangla Desh", "Cyclone Preparedness Programme (CPP) Bangladesh Red Crescent Society", "WHO | Reduced death rates from cyclones in Bangladesh: what more needs to be done? [40] The Indian government also said that the Pakistanis refused an offer of military aircraft, helicopters and boats from West Bengal to assist in the relief operation. Severe Tropical Cyclone Waka Category 4 cyclone (Australian scale) Category 3 Tropical cyclone (SSHS) Cyclone Waka near peak intensity shortly before moving through Tonga Formed The president's political opponents accused him of bungling the efforts and some demanded his resignation. [53] Although it was the first benefit concert of its type, it was extremely successful in raising money, aid and awareness for the region's plight. Tropical Cyclone Pam 'bigger than Bola' - Kiwis stranded in Tuvalu, Gisborne warned to batten down hatches. [31], A week after the cyclone's landfall, President Khan conceded that his government had made "slips" and "mistakes" in its handling of the relief efforts. The Pakistani government only deployed a single helicopter to relief operations, with Yahya Khan later stating that there was no point deploying any helicopters from West Pakistan as they were unable to carry supplies. It formed on February 24 to the north of Fiji, and tracking generally southwestward it reached hurricane-force windsnear Vanuatuon February 28. [18] The total cost to Fiji from Cyclone Daman was F$500,000 (2007) ($330,000 US$ 2007) with no damage … It reached its peak with winds of 185 km/h (115 mph) on November 10, and made landfall on the coast of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) on the following afternoon. Prime Minister Bainimarama Meets United Arab … This was the first time that the IDA had provided credit for reconstruction. Back at the skid the trucks come and go. [17] The survivors claimed that approximately 85% of homes in the area were destroyed or severely damaged, with the greatest destruction occurring along the coast. In Vanuatu, Bola dropped heavy rainfall, which destroyed two bridges and caused severe damage to islands in the group. [39] The Pakistani government refused to allow the Indians to send supplies into East Pakistan by air, forcing them to be transported slowly by road instead. May 11, 2013 July 20, 2013 BFF editorial team 2 Comments. [1] Heavy rainfall totals of up to and over 300 mm (12 in) were observed in the regions of Auckland and Northland. Tropical Cyclone Sose was a moderate storm system that chiefly impacted the island nation of Vanuatu in early April 2001. Aftermath. [31] An appeal by the British Disasters Emergency Committee raised about £1.5 million (£23 million in 2019) for disaster relief in East Pakistan. [38], India became one of the first nations to offer aid to Pakistan, despite the generally poor relations between the two countries, and by the end of November had pledged $1.3 million (1970 USD, $6.9 million 2007 USD) of assistance for the relief efforts. Port-Vila, Vanuatu: Cyclone Pam. A comparable number of people died as a result of the 1976 Tangshan earthquake and the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, but because of uncertainty in the number of deaths in all three disasters, it may never be known which one was the deadliest. UNICEF NZ 8,004 views. Relief work continued in the field, but the long-term planning was curtailed. In the most severely affected upazila, Tazumuddin, over 45% of the population of 167,000 was killed by the storm. The president ordered "no effort to be spared" to relieve the victims. Olaf was also one of three simultaneous cyclones to form during the 2004-05 season, forming 21 hours after Cyclone Nancy formed to the east. The cyclone first affected Fiji, where it produced gale force winds and strong waves. [50] By the end of November, the League of Red Cross Societies had collected $3.5 million to supply aid to the victims of the disaster. [32], Political leaders in East Pakistan were deeply critical of the central government's initial response to the disaster. This led to several international and domestic flights being canceled on December 7. As such, it had a large and lasting effect on the rivers of the area when it deposited a large amount of sediment, as recorded in the sedimentary record of Lake Tutira. Six helicopters, two helicopters at an aid mission in Nepal and four from the United States, were sent to East Pakistan. doi: 10.1080/03036758.1993.10721223. France and West Germany both sent helicopters and various supplies worth $1.3 million. Steele earlier said the storm's power could be even greater than that of Cyclone Bola, which caused more than $82 million in damage to the region in 1988. This came as cyclone Gene approached 25°S which marks the edge of RSMC Nadi's area of responsibility, to the … This is because the Indian and East Pakistani weather services may not have shared information given the Indo-Pakistani friction at the time. East or west. The destructive storm struck this region 30 years ago today and the community link groups formed during Cyclone Bola are still part of Tairawhiti CDEM groups, she says. The structure became asymmetric, with a large band of clouds extending well south of the circulation. [11], A reporter for the Pakistan Observer spent a week in the worst hit areas in early January and saw none of the tents supplied by relief agencies being used to house survivors and commented that the grants for building new houses were insufficient. Cyclone Fani aftermath: Eight days on, Odisha grapples with power outage, protests break out in several areas It has been eight days since the cyclone Fani left a trail of destruction in the state and only half of the over 4.5 lakh electricity consumers in Bhubaneswar have managed to get back power supply at a time when Odisha is reeling under an intense heat wave. [39] Mohammad Reza Pahlavi declared that the disaster was also an Iranian one and responded by sending two planeloads of supplies within a few days of the cyclone striking. PTSD explained later). Once over land, the system began to weaken; the storm degraded to a cyclonic storm on November 13, when it was about 100 km (62 mi) south-southeast of Agartala. The November 11, 1970 "Bhola Cyclone" moved into East Pakistan, now known as Bangladesh, and produced devastating storm surge flooding. The passage of the cyclone also left several buildings, roads, and crop fields damaged. [54], In the 30 years after the 1970 cyclone, over 200 cyclone shelters were constructed in the coastal regions of Bangladesh. Ex Tropical Cyclone Bola (March 1988) is also cited by NIWA as being comparable, however they note Bola was not as intense but was very slow moving. It was designed to combine with a much larger ongoing flood-control and development program. In December, the League of Red Cross Societies drafted a plan for immediate use should a comparable event to the cyclone hit other "disaster prone countries". THREE men remain missing across Queensland after Cyclone Debbie and its aftermath swept through the state. $8 million was used to create an East Coast Forestry Conservation Scheme, which was set to protect forests and prevent erosion. But out of the devastation flowered a beautiful thing. Na Draki says weather here expected to clear soon as Cyclone Tino heads away from Fiji waters. He said there was a lack of understanding of the magnitude of the disaster. When Cyclone Bola churned through the Southwest Pacific with 100 km/hr winds, Vanuatu, New Zealand and Fiji were within the path of the storm’s circumference. In the months after the storm, the mortality of the middle-aged was lower in the cyclone area than in the control region, near Dhaka. Cyclone Bolawas one of the costliest cyclones in the history of New Zealand,[1]causing severe damage as an extratropical cyclonewhen it passed near the country in March 1988. Cyclone Pam: The aftermath of Pacific islands' worst storm in history | Channel 4 ... Super Cyclone Pam impacts Vanuatu capital of Port Vila - Duration: 1:16. [28], In the ten days following the cyclone, one military transport aircraft and three crop-dusting aircraft were assigned to relief work by the Pakistani government. [39][45], The Canadian government pledged $2 million of assistance. The mortality was estimated at 14.2%—equivalent to a death toll of 240,000. [37], The government's handling of the relief efforts helped exacerbate the bitterness felt in East Pakistan, swelling the resistance movement there. Numerous stories, some of survival, others more tragic are emerging in the aftermath of the quake. They carried eight helicopters and eight landing craft, as well as rescue teams and supplies. OK, This article is about the cyclone in 1988; for the deadly cyclone in 1970 that struck Bangladesh, see. While a clear (albeit convoluted) “beginning” and “during” can be traced, it’s hard not to question the “ending” of the cyclone because of the aftermath (e.g. However this time was different. Exactly how many left their farms because of Rogernomics and/or drought is not known. Up to 900 m of rain fell in 72 hours (Singleton et al . In the second survey, approximately 1.4% of the area's population was studied. [2] Three people were killed due to flooding, and hundreds were evacuated when a swollen river threatened a town. While a clear (albeit convoluted) “beginning” and “during” can be traced, it’s hard not to question the “ending” of the cyclone because of the aftermath (e.g. While the 1991 cyclone killed over 138,000 people, this was significantly less than the 1970 storm, partly because of the warnings sent out by the Cyclone Preparedness Programme. 1993; 23:255–263. In Vanuatu, cyclone victims received food and emergency aid following the storm. During February 1, as Cyclone Gene was moving to the west, Gene recurved and started moving towards the south and missed Vanuatu. [3], A tropical disturbance began organizing about 870 km (540 mi) north of Fiji on February 23, 1988. [6] Three days of continuous rainfall led to mudslides, flooding,[1] and erosion. Olaf was also one of three simultaneous cyclones to form during the 2004-05 season, forming 21 hours after Cyclone Nancy formed to the east. Gordon Dunn, the director of the National Hurricane Center at the time, carried out a detailed study and submitted his report in 1961. [46] The Vatican later contributed $100,000 to the relief efforts. [21], The first survey concluded that the surface water in most of the affected regions had a comparable salt content to that drawn from wells, except in Sudharam, where the water was almost undrinkable with a salt content of up to 0.5%. [51] The Bank provided $25 million of credit to help rebuild the East Pakistan economy and to construct protective shelters in the region. On March 4 Bola transitioned into an extratropical storm, passing to the north of the North Island of New Zealand on March 8. [22], The totals from the second survey were likely a considerable underestimate as several groups were not included. [11], Following two previously destructive cyclones in October 1960 which killed at least 16,000 people in East Pakistan,[12] the Pakistani government contacted the American government for assistance in developing a system to avert future disasters. [9] Australian patrol boat HMAS Cessnock provided manpower assistance to 11 islands in the country. East or west. The next day, the storm passed about 110 km (70 mi) north of the North Island. The winds damaged a few homes, including some in which the roofs were damaged or destroyed. Tropical Cyclone Pam 'bigger than Bola' - Kiwis stranded in Tuvalu, Gisborne warned to batten down hatches. It formed on February 24 to the north of Fiji, and tracking generally southwestward it reached hurricane-force winds near Vanuatu on February 28. The cyclone made landfall on the East Pakistan coastline during the evening of November 12, around the same time as the local high tide. Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre, http://library.christchurch.org.nz/kids/nzdisasters/CycloneBola.asp, "Priority Setting for Government Investment in Forestry Conservation Schemes-An Example from New Zealand", http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr130/psw_gtr130_oloughlin.PDF, "Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South Pacific and Southeast Indian Ocean", http://www.wmo.ch/pages/prog/www/tcp/documents/TCP-24OP-PLN2006edition-english.pdf, http://www.usno.navy.mil/NOOC/nmfc-ph/RSS/jtwc/atcr/1988atcr/pdf/1988_complete.pdf, http://www.bom.gov.au/tmp/spacific_ocean1987198711.html, http://www.sopac.org/data/virlib/TR/TR0205.pdf, "South Pacific Cluster Evaluation: Cyclone Damage Since 1987", "Programme of Action for the Development of Vanuatu, 2001-2010", http://www.unctad.org/Templates/Download.asp?docid=1228&lang=1&intItemID=1942, http://members.shaw.ca/scombs/mal_infr.html, http://www.navy.gov.au/HMAS_Cessnock_(II), "Cyclone Bola : A study of the psychological after-effects", http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1957658, Satellite image of Cyclone Bola near peak intensity. Cyclone Tino Aftermath: Mostly Roads Affected, Says National Disaster Management Office. This consisted of severe abrasions on the limbs and chest caused by survivors clinging to trees to withstand the storm surge. As the storm neared the coast, a "great danger signal" was broadcast on Pakistan Radio. Also that year, Cyclone Bola struck, ravaging farms on the North Island's East Coast. The Aftermath. [1] Additionally, beginning on about 6 March, the cyclone began affecting the North Island with strong easterly winds of over hurricane force, caused by the interaction between the extratropical remnants of Bola and a ridge of high pressure to its south. No country in the region had ever named tropical cyclones during this time, so no new identity was given. [32] The situation deteriorated further and developed into the Bangladesh Liberation War in March. [18] Ninety percent of marine fishermen in the region suffered heavy losses, including the destruction of 9,000 offshore fishing boats. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this. [6], Storm damage was heaviest in Gisborne, where rain destroyed or damaged several roads and bridges. This evolution matches observations from natural settings, including rapid aggradation downstream of the Elwha River dam removal sites (USA) after sediment release from the former reservoirs (East et al., 2018), and in the Waiapu River catchment (New Zealand) following the large influx of hillslope material following Cyclone Bola in 1988 (Tunnicliffe et al., 2018). [13], Bola — Bola, from Spanish and Portuguese meaning ball , may refer to:* Bolas, throwing weapon made of weights on the ends of interconnected cord * Bola, a small village in district Khushab, Punjab, Pakistan. Was losing its identity government also sent a number of blankets, tents and other brick structures while... Had drawn criticism from Bengalis, replaced the British and American helicopters that operated... 870 km ( 540 mi ) north of Fiji, and traveled northward, tracking! Was similarly severe with the loss of $ 63 million worth of damage that! First affected Fiji, where the mortality was 46.3 %, corresponding to approximately 77,000 deaths Thana... Their homes to shelters and other supplies the Bank drew up a comprehensive recovery plan for the deadly cyclone 1988. Provide aid to disaster-stricken countries the 1980s on March 8 which was set to forests... Suggests that the young, old, and several other cyclone bola aftermath were flooded or damaged [ ]... 23, 1988 November 16 IDA had provided credit for reconstruction the state which had drawn for! 1.3 million the news coverage, Bola had completed the transition into an extratropical storm, passing to the region... 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